Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological and Landscape Diversity

Why it is important?

Biological diversity not only provides directly or indirectly goods and services indispensable to human survival, but also plays an essential role in the functioning of ecosystems. One of the most valuable assets of the Carpathian Mountains is the natural heritage found there of approx. 133 habitat types and 3,988 plant species. They exhibit the largest pristine forests in Western and Central Europe, with the broadest primeval forests, as well as a great variety of endemic plants and animals. The richest community of large carnivores in Europe can be found in the Carpathians.

Human actions are fundamentally, and to a significant extent irreversibly, changing the diversity of life on Earth. For that reason, Article 4 of the Carpathian Convention requires the Parties to take specific measures regarding the conservation and sustainable use of biological and landscape diversity. On the basis of scientific knowledge and assessment of the state of biodiversity, it promotes the development of national and transnational ecological networks within the Carpathian region.

Related WG and Initiatives

  • WG on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological and Landscape Diversity (WG on Biodiversity)
  • Steering Committee (SC) of the Carpathian Network of Protected Areas (CNPA)
  • Carpathian Wetlands Intiative (CWI)

Key documents

  • Biodiversity (BD) Protocol download
  • Strategic Action Plan (SAP) for the Implementation of the BD Protocol download
  • Biodiversity Protocol Implementation Report Format - simplified version download
  • ToRs WG Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological and Landscape Diversity download
  • ToRs Carpathian Network of Protected Areas (CNPA) download
  • ToRs Carpathian Wetland Initiative (CWI) download

Documents produced with support of the Centralparks project:


National Reports on the Implementation of the Biodiversity Protocol

Pursuant to Article 28 of the Protocol on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological and Landscape Diversity (Bucharest, 2008) to the Carpathian Convention, the Parties shall regularly report on measures related to the Protocol and the results of the measures taken.  Below available is the first round of National Reports received from the Parties and the general review of them prepared by the Secretariat of the Carpathian Convention prior the Fifth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties (due to late submission of the National Report or no submission at all, the Secretariat was not able to prepare a comprehensive summary of the National Report). 

Related projects

Centralparks - The Carpathians belong to the most important European eco-regions. Biodiversity loss and increasing pressures threaten its outstanding natural values. Traditional approaches to resource management and nature conservation are no longer sufficient to guarantee long-lasting economic benefits and provision of ecosystem services. 

Duration: 2019 - 2022


ConnectGREEN - restoring and managing ecological corridors in mountains as the green infrastructure in the Danube basin.

Duration: 2018-2021



BIOREGIO Carpathians - Integrated management of biological and landscape diversity for sustainable regional development and ecological connectivity in the Carpathians

Duration: 2010 - 2013



Alpine-Carpathian Corridor - AKK

The Alpine-Carpathian Corridor project aims to safeguard the ecological connectivity between the Alps and the Carpathians. It strengthens the conservation management for the protected areas along the Alpine Carpathian Corridor and the neighbouring habitats. Migration and genetical exchange among wildlife populations in the Centrope region shall be secured. 

Duration: 2008 - 2012



Carpathian Project - Protection and Sustainable Development of the Carpathians in a Transnational Framework

Duration: 2005 - 2008